Blockchain Explained

The goal of blockchain is to allow digital information to be recorded and distributed, but not edited. In this way, a blockchain is the foundation for immutable ledgers, or records of transactions that cannot be altered, deleted, or destroyed. This is why blockchains are also known as a distributed ledger technology (DLT).

Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master’s in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

Dr. JeFreda R. Brown is a financial consultant, Certified Financial Education Instructor, and researcher who has assisted thousands of clients over a more than two-decade career. She is the CEO of Xaris Financial Enterprises and a course facilitator for Cornell University.

Suzanne is a researcher, writer, and fact-checker. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Finance degree from Bridgewater State University and has worked on print content for business owners, national brands, and major publications.

Blockchain 101: Blockchain For Beginners

Blockchain technology is the concept or protocol behind the running of the blockchain. Blockchain technology makes cryptocurrencies (digital currencies secured by cryptography) like Bitcoin work just like the internet makes email possible.

The blockchain is an immutable (unchangeable, meaning a transaction or file recorded cannot be changed) distributed digital ledger (digital record of transactions or data stored in multiple places on a computer network) with many use cases beyond cryptocurrencies.

Immutable and distributed are two fundamental blockchain properties. The immutability of the ledger means you can always trust it to be accurate. Being distributed protects the blockchain from network attacks.

Traditional Finance and Blockchain Investment Strategies

Second, you are also able to apply traditional investment principles to investing in cryptocurrencies and the blockchain. For example, you can invest the same amount of money into Bitcoin each month regardless of price (dollar-cost averaging) to remove any emotion out of the investment process.

Overview of 10 Major Investment Strategies

    1. Growth Investing: Investors look for companies that demonstrate above-average growth. Investors using this strategy will often still invest in shares even if they seem expensive.To narrow down your search, focus on industries currently doing well or have historically performed. With the blockchain technology market expected to grow in size, there are bound to be several companies with strong growth potential.
    2. Value Investing: Investors look for undervalued companies, e.g., their price doesn’t fully reflect their value. Successful value investing often requires that you hold your shares for the long term.
    3. Dividend Growth Investing: Investors invest in companies that have a history of paying out dividends. You can look at a company’s financial statements to see if they pay out dividends. Look for a yield of between 2-6%.
    4. Indexing: This is more of a cautious and passive investment strategy, but indexed investors often outperform more active investors. These investors typically invest in an index fund.An index fund consists of pooled funds from investors, is managed by a fund manager, and automatically invests in the companies of a specific index like the S&P 500 to effectively track against the index’s performance.It is different from an ETF in that you can only buy or sell index funds at the end of the day and not throughout. An example of a cryptocurrency index fund is the Bitwise 10 Crypto Index Fund (BITW).
    5. Day Trading: Day trading is a more active and aggressive short-term trading strategy. Investors frequently trade throughout the day to capitalize on small market movements to make a profit. Day traders will use technical analysis to develop trade ideas around how the market will move. Day trading cryptocurrency is equally lucrative and risky due to highly volatile assets.
    6. Algorithmic Trading: Also known as automatic trading, this investment strategy involves using computer programs to execute trades based on pre-programmed instructions such as price, time, etc. A large portion of the American market consists of algorithmic trading. AlgoTrader is an automated trading program you can use for Bitcoin trading.
    7. Contrarian Investing: Contrarian investors purposely go against the market sentiment. They buy when people are selling and sell when people are buying.By following the Bitcoin Fear and Greed Index, you can get a good idea of the prevailing sentiment in the Bitcoin market and then do the opposite: buy when people are fearful and sell when they’re greedy (see Fear & Greed Index below).
    8. Arbitrage: This strategy involves taking advantage of price differences of the same asset between markets. You buy the asset in one market and then sell it for a higher price in another.Because cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin often differ in price between countries, there are great opportunities to profit from this strategy.In a nutshell, traders will buy cryptocurrency on an overseas exchange (for a lower price) and then transfer it to a local exchange and sell it for a higher price.As Business Tech reports, you can make 2-4% per trade using the right investment platform. Just make sure you follow local exchange control laws because there are usually limits to how much local currency you can move beyond the borders.
    9. Yield Farming: This blockchain-specific investment strategy involves lending your cryptocurrency to someone else via smart contracts.The lendee pays you a fee for your services. Yield farmers often move their cryptocurrency between different lending platforms to maximize returns. A few yield farming platforms include Compound Finance, Aave, and MarketDAO. Learn more about DeFi yield farming.
    10. Diversification: Spread your risk and invest in different assets and companies to limit your overall downside while exposing you to more opportunities to make money. Diversification is more than just an investment strategy; it’s a smart way to invest that most financial experts and brokers encourage.This strategy works well for traditional finance and cryptocurrency.In traditional markets, you can spread risk across bonds, money markets, and shares— and even diversify your share portfolio by investing across industries.For cryptocurrencies and blockchain, you can invest in different public blockchain companies and also cryptocurrencies with different use cases like Bitcoin (payments), Ethereum (smart contracts), Monero (privacy), and XRP (cross border payments).If you really want to prioritize diversification, you should invest across traditional and crypto markets, and rebalance your portfolio as needed.
    11. Resources:

      I residenti di Park Slope a Brooklyn sono in grado di vendere energia generata da pannelli solari tramite una microrete di distribuzione abilitata da una blockchain che registra ogni transazione effettuata con una utility locale. La microrete, creata dalla divisione Digital Grid di Siemens, comprende sistemi di controllo di rete, convertitori, accumulatori di batterie agli ioni di litio e contatori elettrici smart. Il database blockchain di Brooklyn Microgrid è un sistema di contabilità basato sul web che utilizza la tecnologia crittografica per salvare i dati energetici in un modo sia economico, sia a prova di falsificazione.


      Blockchain กับการปฏิวัติตัวกลางครั้งใหญ่ที่สุดในประวัติศาสตร์

      Cos’è la blockchain?

      Innanzitutto la blockchain è un libro mastro elettronico pubblico, simile a un database relazionale, che può essere condiviso apertamente tra gli utenti più disparati e che crea una registrazione immutabile delle loro transazioni, ognuna contrassegnata da una marca temporale e collegata alla precedente. Ogni record o transazione digitale è chiamato blocco e consente a un insieme aperto o controllato di utenti di accedere al libro mastro elettronico. Ogni blocco è collegato a un partecipante specifico.

      Leggi anche: 10 startup che offrono soluzioni basate su blockchain

      La blockchain può essere aggiornata solo con il consenso dei partecipanti al sistema e contiene una registrazione autentica e verificabile di ogni singola transazione effettuata nel sistema. Non si tratta però di una tecnologia singola e a sé stante, ma di un’architettura complessa che consente agli utenti di effettuare transazioni creando una registrazione immutabile di esse. Sebbene abbia un enorme potenziale, la tecnologia blockchain è ancora agli albori e i CIO e le loro controparti commerciali dovrebbero aspettarsi delle battute d’arresto nella sua implementazione, inclusa la possibilità reale di gravi bug nel software.

      Ad esempio, una delle piattaforme di blockchain più diffuse, Ethereum, non supporta l’uso di punti decimali nel suo script per i contratti intelligenti. La Linux Foundation ha creato strumenti per costruire reti di collaborazione blockchain e lo scorso luglio ha presentato Hyperledger Fabric 1.0, uno strumento di collaborazione per la creazione di reti aziendali di blockchain distribuite, per esempio per impiegare gli smart contracts, i contratti intelligenti che vengono eseguiti automaticamente in base al verificarsi di certe condizioni.

      Leggi anche: Blockchain-as-a-Service: le migliori opzioni sul mercato

      Mentre alcuni gruppi industriali stanno lavorando per standardizzare le versioni del software blockchain, ci sono anche oltre 200 startup che lavorano sulle loro versioni di questa tecnologia. Perché allora la blockchain sta ottenendo già ora tutta questa attenzione? In una parola, Bitcoin.

      Bitcoin è una criptovaluta che permette di realizzare pagamenti su una rete aperta utilizzando bit e crittografia. È stata la prima criptovaluta decentralizzata in assoluto quando è stata creata nel 2009. Sono poi arrivate (e continuano a farlo) altre forme di criptovaluta o denaro virtuale come Ether (basata sulla piattaforma di applicazione blockchain di ethereum), che hanno aperto nuove strade per gli scambi monetari transfrontalieri.

      Il termine bitcoin è stato coniato nel 2008 quando Satoshi Nakamoto (probabilmente uno pseudonimo di uno o più sviluppatori) ha scritto un articolo su una “versione peer-to-peer di denaro elettronico che consentirebbe di inviare direttamente i pagamenti online da un soggetto all’altro senza passare attraverso un istituto finanziario”.

      Quanto è sicura la blockchain?

      Se è vero che nessun sistema è immune dall’essere hackerato, la semplice topologia della blockchain è la più sicura oggi secondo Alex Tapscott, CEO e fondatore di Northwest Passage Ventures, una società di venture capital che investe in società tecnologiche di blockchain.

      “Per spostare qualsiasi cosa di valore su qualsiasi tipo di blockchain, la rete deve prima essere d’accordo sul fatto che quella transazione sia valida, il che significa che nessuna singola entità può entrare e dire in un modo o nell’altro se una transazione è avvenuta o meno. Per hackerare un sistema simile, non dovreste semplicemente hackerare un sistema come fareste per attaccare una banca, ma ogni singolo computer su quella rete”.

      Leggi anche: 6 miti da sfatare sulla blockchain

      Le risorse di calcolo per maggior parte delle blockchain sono enormi, perché non si tratta solo un computer ma di molti, moltissimi. Ad esempio, la blockchain di bitcoin sfrutta tra 10 e 100 volte la potenza di calcolo di tutte le serving farm di Google messe insieme. “Come per qualsiasi tecnologia emergente, la blockchain affronta sfide e ostacoli in fase di adozione, ma resta il fatto che pur non essendo immune ad attacchi, è significativamente meglio di tutto ciò che abbiamo inventato oggi a livello di sicurezza”, conclude Tapscott.

      I calcoli necessari a validare le transazioni e produrre un nuovo blocco da unire alla blockchain possono essere velocizzati grazie all’uso di schede grafiche accelerate (GPU). Questo ha contribuito negli scorsi mesi a una fortissima richiesta di questo tipo di componente, cosa che ha fatto impennare i prezzi.

      Leggi anche: La blockchain può essere una soluzione per la sicurezza delle aziende?

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      The blockchain is decentralized which also stores data. However, it is different from databases. In this slide, we discuss the blockchain vs. database topic. The four categories in which they differ include writing access, cost, integrity, and trust. The major difference is, of course, the absence of a centralized authority. Data written on the blockchain is also immutable which in turn provides integrity. The database, on the other hand, offers you CRUD operation. There are also significant differences that are covered in the slide itself.

      Blockchain explained: Bitcoins on a computer chip.

      Blockchain Introduction Presentation- Slides Description

      Slide 1: Title

      The first slide is the presentation of the title – Blockchain Fundamentals (Blockchain Made Easy). You can also find the 101Blockchains logo, representing that the presentation has been created by the 101Blockchains.

      Slide 2: Abstract

      Slide 3: What is Blockchain?

      The blockchain is defined as an open ledger that offers decentralization to the parties. In addition, it also offers transparency, immutability, and security. It has many features including being open, distributed, ledger, P2P, and permanent.

      Blockchain term was first introduced in the white paper of Bitcoin in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. From there, it has come a long way as more and more organizations are interested in it. Right now, Bitcoin is on its way to implementing a lightning network and other advanced features.

      Slide 4: How Does a Blockchain Work?

      The working of blockchain is straightforward. As it is a peer-to-peer network, a user needs to start a transaction. Once done, a block is allocated to the said transaction. The transaction block is also broadcasted to the network, and all the nodes in the network get the said information. The block is then mined and validated. It is also added to the chain, followed by a successful transaction.

      Slide 5: Remarkable Benefits of Blockchain Technology

      Blockchain technology is feature-rich technology. There are so many benefits of Blockchain Technology. For example, it lets the user do a faster settlement compared to traditional methods. It is also immutable and more secure. When compared to a traditional network, blockchain technology is more capable and has improved network capacity. With decentralization built-in, it can be used to build a shared and distributed blockchain.

      Slide 6: Public vs Private Blockchain Network

      The slides discuss the difference between public and private blockchain network. The main difference between them is how they function. The public blockchain network is permissionless whereas the private blockchain is permissioned one. This means that the public blockchain is an open network that is not controlled by anyone. Anyone can access it. The private blockchain, on the other hand, is permissioned which means that there is an authority that manages who can use the network.

      Slide 7: Centralized vs Decentralized vs Distributed Network: An Overview

      Slide 8 and 9: Top Blockchain Terms

      It is hard for a beginner to know blockchain terms and this can easily make them confused. This slide list 10 important must know blockchain terms out there. For example, it covers bitcoin, airdrop, dApp, ICO, and others.

      Slide 10: Smart Contract Explained

      Smart contracts are similar to a legal document and create terms between two parties. The two parties that are dealing with using smart contracts. Also, the contracts use public ledger for storage purposes. Smart contracts are triggered when a condition is met, and are completely autonomous.

      It just executes based on the code that defines the pre-condition. To make sure that they work as intended, they are analyzed and managed by regulators. It is also helpful in understanding trends and predicts market uncertainties.

      Slide 11: How do Smart Contract Work?

      Smart contracts work between two parties. It is used to do buyer and seller matchmaking. Furthermore, it can be used for transactions. Banks and other institutes can use smart contracts to receive assets and distribute them.

      Slide 12: Advantage of Smart Contracts?

      Slide 13: Disadvantages of Smart Contracts

      Smart contracts are created by humans, so are open for human-errors. Also, they are not 100% confidential. It can leak some vital info which can be read by a 3rd party. Not only that, but there are also rouge contracts that can act like a real one and make fraud possible.

      Slide 14: Smart Contracts Use Cases

      There are many uses cases for smart contracts. They can be used in different verticals, and can also be used to make things efficient. Some of its main uses cases include trading activities, supply chains, copyright protection, real estate market, government voting, and so on. It also has very useful use cases in Internet-of-things(IoT) where it can help protect the network as well.

      Slide 15: Is the Blockchain Overhyped?

      Is the blockchain overhyped? It is one of the biggest questions that need to be addressed. The general population doesn’t understand what blockchain has to offer. This leads to assumptions and many calling it overhyped. Right now, the blockchain technology is not yet one decade old.

      Final Words

      This leads us to the end of the blockchain fundamentals presentation. If you are looking for a blockchain presentation ppt, then you can download the presentation and save it on your system. These Blockchain Fundamentals slides not only cover the introduction to the blockchain but also introduce the reader to different new concepts, ideas, and information.

      You can also download the blockchain presentation pdf and use it as a reference for learning further advanced topics. Furthermore, you can share the blockchain slides pdf in your circle. As a beginner, we’ll recommend you to enroll in our Free Blockchain Fundamental Course to lay the foundation of a bright Blockchain career.

      Don’t forget to share the article with all your friends and help them learn blockchain. Also, don’t forget to share your thoughts about the slide in the comment section below; we’re listening! You can also submit your questions in the comment section, we’ll respond back to you in no time.

      ทำไมถึงเรียกว่า Blockchain ?

      Blockchain คือวิธีการเก็บข้อมูลบัญชีรูปแบบหนึ่ง นึกภาพง่าย ๆ ว่า พอมีธุรกรรม Transaction ใหม่ ๆ เข้ามา มันก็จะถูกกองรวม ๆ กันไว้ พอได้จำนวนหนึ่งเราก็จะจัดบรรจุธุรกรรมเหล่านั้นลงกล่องบัญชี (Block) และทำการปิดกล่อง พอเราปิดกล่องเสร็จ เราก็จะได้กล่องใหม่หรือ Block ใหม่ขึ้นมานั้นเอง

      Blockchain กับการปฏิวัติตัวกลางครั้งใหญ่ที่สุดในประวัติศาสตร์

      สิ่งที่ทำให้ Blockchain ต่างจากการเก็บบัญชีแบบอื่นคือ เราไม่ได้กลับไปเปิดกล่องบัญชีเก่าเพื่อแก้หรืออัพเดทข้อมูลธุรกรรม แต่กล่องธุรกรรมใหม่จะถูกสร้างขึ้นเรื่อยๆไปในทางเดียว โดยจะเชื่อมและอ้างอิง reference กับกล่องเก่าอยู่เสมอ ในลักษณะของกล่องหลายๆกล่องที่มีโซ่เชื่อมกัน มันถึงเรียกว่า Blockchain นั้นเอง

      ** ข้อมูลธุรกรรมของ Block ก่อนหน้าจะถูก Cryptographic Hash ไว้ (การเข้ารหัสทางเดียว ไว้เพื่อแค่เช็คว่าข้อมูลนั้นเป็นต้นฉบับจริง ไม่ถูกใครเปลี่ยนแปลง)โดยที่ Block ใหม่ที่ถูกสร้างก็จะมี Hash ของ Block เก่าระบุอยู่ด้วย (จึงอ้างอิงกลับได้ว่า Block ก่อนหน้าคืออันไหน) ถ้าหากมีคนแอบไปเปลี่ยนแปลงข้อมูลธุรกรรม Block เก่า แม้แต่เพียงนิดเดียว Hash ก็จะเปลี่ยน ทำให้เรารู้ว่ามีการแอบแก้ไข ตัวอย่างเช่นรูปข้างล่าง เราจะเห็นได้ว่าประโยค “How are you” ถ้าแค่เติมเครื่องหมายคำถาม “?” เข้าไป ผลลัพท์ Hash ก็จะเปลี่ยนไปทันที

      Blockchain กับการปฏิวัติตัวกลางครั้งใหญ่ที่สุดในประวัติศาสตร์


      Blockchain กับการปฏิวัติตัวกลางครั้งใหญ่ที่สุดในประวัติศาสตร์

      1. Ownership ความเป็นเจ้าของ จากที่เราต้องฝากเงินฝากชีวิตให้กับตัวกลางเป็นคนดูแล ต้องขออนุญาตทุกครั้งไม่ว่าจะดูหรือโอนเงินในบัญชี มาตอนนี้ Blockchain ทำให้เราสามารถเก็บทรัพย์สินหรือเงินนี่แหละกับตัวเองได้จริง ๆ ตอนโอนก็โอนเลยแบบ Peer-to-Peer ไม่ต้องขอใคร
      2. Open & Neutral ความเป็นระบบเปิดและเท่าเทียม ไม่ว่าเราจะเป็นใคร อายุเท่าไหร่ ทำงานอะไร ระบบไม่สนใจหรอกครับ ทุกคนมีสิทธิเข้ามาใช้อย่างเท่าเทียม ไม่มีลำเอียงหรือสองมาตรฐาน
      3. Transparency & Immutability ความโปร่งใสและข้อมูลที่เปลี่ยนแปลงแก้ไขไม่ได้ ซึ่งข้อมูลบน Blockchain นั้นจะเชื่อถือได้โดยทุกฝ่าย เพราะเรารู้ว่าไม่มีบริษัทไหนหรือใครแอบเข้าไปแก้ข้อมูลย้อนหลังได้ อีกทั้งมันจะอยู่อย่างถาวรอีกด้วย
      4. Security ความปลอดภัย ถ้าเซิฟเวอร์กลางมันมีไม่กี่ที่ Hacker ก็รู้เป้าโจมตี และทำจนว่ามันจะสำเร็จใช่ไหมละครับ แค่พลาดครั้งเดียวข้อมูลบัญชีก็อาจถูกแก้ไขได้ แต่ถ้าเรากระจายบัญชีไปทั่วโลกละ จะแก้ทีก็ต้องแฮกคอมพิวเตอร์นับไม่ถ้วนพร้อม ๆ กันเลยทีเดียว ไม่งั้นก็ถูกจับได้ว่าข้อมูลผิด
      5. Borderless ความไร้พรมแดน ปกติแล้วเราจำเป็นต้องพึ่งตัวกลางในแต่ประเทศ ยกตัวอย่างเช่นการเปิดบัญชีธนาคาร แต่ระบบนี้มันไม่จำกัดประเทศ หรือพูดง่าย ๆ ว่ามันไม่รู้ด้วยว่าเราอยู่ที่ไหน เพียงแค่เรามีอินเตอร์เน็ต เราสามารถใช้งานระบบได้ทุกเมื่อ
      6. Cut Cost ลดค่าใช้จ่าย แน่นอนว่าพอไม่มีธุรกิจตัวกลางที่มากินกำไรแล้ว ค่าใช้จ่ายของการทำธุรกรรมนั้นลดลงแน่นอน

      ** ที่ยกมานี้เป็นคุณสมบัติหลัก ๆ ของ Permissionless / Public Blockchain นะครับ ซึ่งถ้าเป็น Permissioned / Private Blockchain อาจจะไม่ได้มีคุณสมบัติครบแบบนี้ ไว้โอกาสหน้าคอยน์แมนจะมาเจาะลึกถึงประเภท Blockchain ว่ามันต่างกันยังไงนะครับ

      Key Advantages

      Simplifying Business
      Most businesses use different systems, so it is hard
      for them to share a database with another business.
      Trust & Transparency
      Trust is an essential part of getting the difficult
      world of blockchain explained.
      As the blockchain is a trusted peer-to-peer network,
      it removes the need for a central third party.
      Once a transaction is confirmed, it is stored on the
      ledger and protected using cryptography.
      Blockchain is a decentralized peer-to-peer network
      and there is no central point of failure.
      Decentralization is one of the cores — and most
      important — advantages of blockchain technology.


      Decentralization is one of the core — and most important — advantages of the blockchain technology. It has been a highly-desired concept for many years, but it was blockchain technology that made it possible.

      Instead of the server being stored in one place, it is stored on the blockchain and is powered by many different computers/nodes. This means there is no third party to trust and pay a fee to.


      Once a transaction is confirmed, it is stored on the ledger and protected using cryptography. It cannot be changed or deleted without a consensus (the group agreement), which makes the blockchain unbreakable. Pretty cool, eh?

      Blockchain explained: a network over a city.

      Trust and Transparency

      Trust is an essential part of getting the difficult world of blockchain explained. As it is a shared database, everyone can view the full details of the transactions within it. These include the source, date, time and the destination of the transaction.


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